Download a lesson on the past perfect for Business English. You are free to photocopy it for classroom purposes.
When we talk about a past event that happened before another past event, we use the Past Perfect Simple. Use the Past Perfect Simple when you name a later event before an earlier event.
Key phrases: by the time Julie arrived at work, by the end of the day, by the end of last week, etc.
I broke a heel and a taxi splashed me. Then, I arrived at work.
By the time I arrived at work, I had broken a heel and a taxi had splashed me.
Subject + had + Past Participle